ü Aircraft Industry
remains the first and the major titanium consumer
Material requirements for aircraft building:
1) small weight
2) high specific strength
3) heat resistance
4) fatigue load resistance
5) crack resistance
6) corrosion resistance
Titanium and its alloys meet this requirement.
Three major trends of titanium application for aircraft building:
1. Fabrication of items of complex space configuration:
- hatch and door edging where moisture is likely to be accumulated (high corrosion resistance of titanium is used)
- skins which are affected by engine combustion product flow, flame preventing fire safety-proof membranes (high temperature of melting and chemical inactivity of titanium is used)
- thin-walled lead pipes of air system (minimum thermal titanium extension ratio compared to all other metals is used)
- floor decking of the cargo cabin (high strength and hardness is used)
2. Fabrication of designated high-loaded assemblies and units
- landing gear
- fastening elements (brackets) of the wing
- hydro cylinders
3. Engine part manufacture (see next section).
The following is manufactured from titanium alloys for aircraft applications:
ailerons, panel and swivel wing assemblies, spar walls, panels, brackets, steering wheels, wedge meshes, air intake ducts, lead pipes, frames, leading edge flaps and flaps, hydraulic systems, fasteners and a number of other parts.
In aircraft industry the most widely used titanium alloys are GOST VT1-0, VT22, VT6, VT3-1, VT8, VT9, VT25, ASTM Grade-2, Grade-3, Grade-4, Grade-5, Ti6Al-4V, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr6Mo, IMI318 IMI550, IMI685, IMI829, IMI834.
ü Shipbuilding Industry
Titanium metal has many characteristics for use in ships, such as excellent corrosion resistance against sea-water, light weight and high tensile strength, good recycle ability, etc. For the future Ti usage, some basic data on Ti should be studied for Ti ship-building. Titanium has a big possibility for ship-material, specially, in some special purpose.
ü Automotive industry
In the automotive industry, uses for titanium in the automotive/motorcycle aftermarket and racing market. Engine parts such as connecting rods, wrist pins, valves, valve retainers and springs, rocker arms and camshafts, to name a few, lend themselves to fabrication from titanium, because it is durable, strong, lightweight and resists heat and corrosion. While titanium initially may be more expensive for these applications, designs that exploit its unique characteristics yield parts that more than pay for themselves with better performance and a longer life.
Titanium has come of age as a competitive building material. New, more effective production techniques, combined with an abundance of raw and refined ore, have improved availability. Titanium's corrosion immunity, strength and physical properties combine to allow reduced wall thickness, lowering its installed unit cost. Well-researched designs that capitalize on its unique attributes and long-term savings from durability and low maintenance make titanium one of today's most cost effective building materials on a lifecycle basis. There are architectural titanium as coil, sheet, composite panel and tube. Sheet is the most commonly used in constructing of outer walls, roofs, shields.
The sporting goods industry uses the metal in the manufacture of tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey and football helmet grills, bicycle frames and components. Titanium alloys are also used in spectacle frames. This results in a rather expensive, but highly durable and long lasting frame which is light in weight and causes no skin allergies. The golf industry has found that lightweight titanium club heads can be bigger than those made of steel, enlarging the "sweet spot" of the club and thus increasing distance and accuracy.
The application of titanium in bicycle production started approximately 25-30 years ago and it was the first time titanium had been applied in sports. The most commonly used titanium alloy for bicycle frames is Тi 3Аl-2.5V (ASTM Grade 9) / PT3V.
Ti6Al-4V alloy is used in making knives for diving, but this alloy doesn’t provide the proper durability of blade edge in compare to other alloys. That’s why some manufacturers prefer to use GOST VT23 alloy.
Titanium is widely used in tourism and mountaineering – almost for all articles tourists and alpinists have in their rucksacks: bottles, cups, other food ware are mostly made from CP titanium ASTM Grade 1 и Grade 2 (GOST VT1-0).
Because of its corrosion resistance, titanium and its alloys are used extensively in prosthetic devices such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart-valve parts and load bearing bone or hip-joint replacements or bone splints. Titanium is completely inert to human body fluids, making it ideal for medical replacement structures such as hip and knee implants. Titanium actually allows bone growth to adhere to the implants, so they last longer than those made of other materials. Reconstructive titanium plates and mesh that support broken bones are also commonly used today.
High strength-to-weight ratio and superior ballistic properties make titanium well suited for armor applications. Used as protective armor on personnel carriers and tanks, it makes the vehicles much lighter, increasing mobility of the force. Personal armor vests and helmets for police made from titanium are far lighter and more comfortable than those made from competing materials.
For medical application following titanium grades are common: CP (commercially pure) GOST VT1-0, VT1-00, ASTM B 348 Grade 1, Grade 2 Grade 3, Grade 4, alloys VT6 / VT6S, ASTM B 348 Grade 5, Grade 23, Ti 6Al-4V ASTM F 1472, ASTM, Ti 6Al-4V ELI ASTM F 136.
ü Computer industry
Since titanium does not become magnetized, it is used in the structural parts surrounding computer components such as disk drives and microchips, which can be ruined by stray magnetism. In the computer industry, titanium is a promising substrate for hard disk drives. . Its non-magnetic properties prevent interference with the data storage process; its ability to withstand heat allows higher temperatures during the coating process, which improves manufacturing rates; and the purity of titanium permits closer read/write head tolerances, increasing disk capacity.
ü Food industry
Yet there is a very important sector that still needs to be analyzed, that is the food industry field. The absolute biocompatibility and non-toxicity of titanium, its resistance to the aggression of organic substances, to corrosion and erosion explain why this material plays a primary role in all food industry plants.
Titanium has been increasingly used in the manufacture of baking ovens for hams and sausages that is environment with the salinity of 10-14% and operation temperatures around 100 0C, high humidity and continuous operation modes.
All machinery, even if made of the beat stainless steel, has a useful life not above 2 years, provided that it is subjected to regular servicing. There is a great demand for titanium for mincing machines that cut and actually mince the meat and in the field of sausage production.
Another field where titanium has started to be recently applied, which is still at an experimental level, not in technical terms but in terms of global efficiency, is the one related to pressurized boilers that is in coffee-making machines distillers.
More update research an studies indicate that there are food liquid, generally wine products, but also alcoholic beverages where titanium can be considered an excellent remedy, since it does not release the elements contains in steels with several titles.
The success of titanium originates from the excellent behavior of this material with high temperatures, its lightness, biocompatibility and resistance.
Traditionally reserved for industrial uses, titanium has only recently been included as a jewelry material and is increasingly popular. Titanium is a good material for inlay work as it can be joined to different metals to make multi-tone pieces. Titanium is available in pure or alloyed form, but there is no reason to increase its strength with alloys for the purposes of jewelry, therefore the purest grade of titaniumis the most desirable for this application.
The variety of titanium jewelry ware includes: rings, bracelets, chains, necklaces, pendants, earrings etc.
Titanium jewelry is lightweight and feels warm to the touch; it is easily adopted by the wearer, and its sober coloring is most sophisticated. It is far more durable and longer lasting than gold or platinum.
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